Reason is the capacity for cognition, understanding, and the formation of judgments based upon logic; it is the ability to think logically. Reasoning is the capacity or function of a conceptual system to process information and ideas according to an objectively consistent set of instructions. A valid reason is the output of this process. A central characteristic of reasoning, as opposed to other forms of thinking, is that it is based upon a coherent set of objective rules that govern the processing of information or ideas.