Habitat fragmentation describes the emergence of discontinuities or fragmentation in an organism’s native environment, causing population fragmentation and ecosystem decay. It is a process during which a large expanse of habitat is transformed into a number of patches of a smaller total area, isolated from each other by a set of habitats unlike the original. It increases discontinuity in the spatial patterning of resource availability, affecting the conditions for species occupancy, and ultimately individual fitness.¬†Fragmentation can arise via both natural and anthropogenic processes in terrestrial and aquatic systems.